The New York Times, on 10 September, published this story about the Iraq Government canceling oil field development contracts with Exxon-Mobil, Chevron, Shell, Total and BP.
While not particularly lucrative by industry standards, the contracts were valued for providing a foothold in Iraq at a time when oil companies are being shut out of energy-rich countries around the world.
“Not particularly lucrative” might well be interpreted to mean, they were not production sharing agreements in which the contractors, the oil companies, get ownership of a share of the oil. Rather than a share of the oil the agreements were technical service contracts in which the oil companies would be paid set fees for their services. This is the usual contractual format for services used in the other oil rich countries in the Persian Gulf Region.