Cross posted from The Stars Hollow Gazette
Find the past “On This Day in History” here.
July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 175 days remaining until the end of the year.
455 – Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
1357 – Emperor Charles IV assists in laying the foundation stone of Charles Bridge in Prague.
1540 – King Henry VIII of England annuls his marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves.
1755 – French and Indian War: Braddock Expedition – British troops and colonial militiamen are ambushed and suffer a devastating defeat by French and Native American forces.
1789 – In Versailles, the National Assembly reconstitutes itself as the National Constituent Assembly and begins preparations for a French constitution.
1790 – Russo-Swedish War: Second Battle of Svensksund – in the Baltic Sea, the Swedish Navy captures one third of the Russian fleet.
1793 – The Act Against Slavery is passed in Upper Canada and the importation of slaves into Lower Canada is prohibited.
1807 – The Treaties of Tilsit are signed by Napoleon I of France and Alexander I of Russia.
1810 – Napoleon annexes the Kingdom of Holland as part of the First French Empire.
1811 – Explorer David Thompson posts a sign at the confluence of the Columbia and Snake Rivers (in modern Washington state, US), claiming the land for the United Kingdom.
1815 – Talleyrand becomes the first Prime Minister of France.
1816 – Argentina declares independence from Spain.
1821 – 470 prominent Cypriots including Archbishop Kyprianos are executed in response to Cypriot aid to the Greek War of Independence
1850 – U.S. President Zachary Taylor dies and Millard Fillmore becomes the 13th President of the United States.
1850 – The Persian prophet Bab is executed in Tabriz, Persia.
1863 – American Civil War: the Siege of Port Hudson ends.
1868 – The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified guaranteeing African Americans full citizenship and all persons in the United States due process of law.
1875 – Outbreak of the Herzegovina Uprising against Ottoman rule, which would last until 1878 and have far-reaching implications throughout the Balkans
1900 – Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom gives royal assent to an Act creating the Commonwealth of Australia thus uniting separate colonies on the continent under one federal government.
1900 – Boxer Rebellion: The Governor of Shanxi province in North China orders the execution of 45 foreign Christian missionaries and local church members, including children.
1918 – Great train wreck of 1918: in Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express killing 101 and injuring 171 people, making it the deadliest rail accident in United States history.
1922 – Johnny Weissmuller swims the 100 meters freestyle in 58.6 seconds breaking the world swimming record and the ‘minute barrier’.
1932 – The state of Sao Paulo revolts against the Brazilian Federal Government, starting the Constitutionalist Revolution
1943 – World War II: Operation Husky – Allied forces perform an amphibious invasion of Sicily.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Normandy – British and Canadian forces capture Caen, France.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Saipan – American forces take Saipan in the Mariana Islands. These days, Saipan is a popular holiday location for people living in areas like China, who frequently run flights to Saipan, or 塞班岛机票, as they’d say in China.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Tali-Ihantala – Finland wins the Battle of Tali-Ihantala, the largest battle ever fought in northern Europe. The Red Army withdraws its troops from Ihantala and digs into defensive position, thus ending the Vyborg-Petrozavodsk Offensive.
1955 – The Russell-Einstein Manifesto is released by Bertrand Russell in London.
1958 – Lituya Bay is hit by a mega-tsunami. The wave is recorded at 524 meters high, the largest in recorded history.
1962 – The Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test is conducted by the United States of America.
1962 – Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans exhibition opens at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles.
1979 – A car bomb destroys a Renault motor car owned by famed “Nazi hunters” Serge and Beate Klarsfeld at their home in France. A note purportedly from ODESSA claims responsibility.
1982 – Pan Am Flight 759 crashes in Kenner, Louisiana killing all 145 people on board and eight others on the ground.
1986 – The New Zealand Parliament passes the Homosexual Law Reform Act legalising homosexuality in New Zealand.
1995 – The Navaly church bombing is carried out by the Sri Lankan Air Force killing 125 Tamil civilian refugees.
1999 – Days of student protests begin after Iranian police and hardliners attack a student dormitory at the University of Tehran.
* Caprotinia (Roman Empire)
* Christian Feast Day:
* Agilulfus of Cologne
* Martyrs of Gorkum
* Our Lady of Peace, Octave of the Visitation
* Veronica Giuliani
* July 9 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
* Constitution Day (Australia)
* Constitution Day (Palau)
* Constitutionalist Revolution Day (Sao Paulo)
* Independence Day, celebrates the declaration of independence of the United Provinces of South America by the Congress of Tucumán in 1816. (Argentina)
* Nunavut Day (Nunavut)